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Dear participants,

We are conducting research in collaboration with the Center for China and Asia-Pacific Studies (CECHAP) of the Universidad del Pacífico (Lima-Peru) for APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum).
This study aims to obtain information on the role of digital connectivity in the formalization process of informal businesses. Digitalization in the business environment is constantly strengthening, which can significantly reduce informality in the sector. Informal businesses face various problems that limit their productivity while competing unfairly with formal enterprises.

We thank you for your collaboration in this important academic project. The survey lasts approximately 15 minutes, and your participation is essential for advancing research and business development. Please do not hesitate to contact us with any questions or concerns regarding the survey.

We sincerely appreciate your time and consideration.

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* 2. Line of Business (LOB)

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* 3. What is your main activity, or which is the product that represents the most significant proportion of your annual sales?

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* 4. In what year did this business begin operating?

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* 5. In what year was the company formally registered?

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* 6. Does the business you belong to focus on traditional activities or innovative technologies?

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* 7. What is the percentage of women's participation in the company's management team?

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* 8. How many employees, including yourself, currently work in your business?

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* 9. In the last three years, what percentage of sales has been allocated to employee training?

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* 10. In terms of the labor practices implemented in your company, what is the degree of compliance with the following procedures?

  Properly implemented Not implemented In process
Formal labor contracting.
Payment of remuneration in accordance with the law.
Coverage of social benefits.
Paid breaks and leaves of absence.
Job promotions.
Labor recognition.

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* 11. From the beginning of your operations to the present, by what percentage has the performance of the following indicators of your business increased?

  No increase (0%) Increased up to 25% Increased between 26% and 50% Increased between 51% and 100% Increased between 101% and 200% Increased of more than 200%
Total sales
Profit margin

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* 12. From the beginning of your operations to the present, by what percentage, have your total business costs been reduced?

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* 13. In the last three years, what is the percentage of sales allocated to the improvement of operating or production processes?

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* 14. How important are the following activities to you?

  Null Very low Low Medium High Very high
Increase the number of full-time employees contracted.
Increase production capacity in the business.
Develop new products or services for the main market of the business.
Introduce improvements in products or services for the main market of the business.
Invest in research and development activities (internally or by contracting with other companies).

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* 15. Please indicate what percentage of sales has been allocated to the use of new technologies for innovations in the last year?

  0% 1% to 5% 6% to 10% 11% to 20% 21% to 30% 31% to more
Product innovation
Process innovation
Marketing innovation
Organizational innovation

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* 16. In the next two years, what percentage of your sales do you plan to allocate to the following statements?

  0% 1% to 5% 6% to 10% 11% to 20% 21% to 30% 31% to more
Introduce new products to the market.
Improve existing products.
Develop new forms of packaging and labeling.
Use artificial intelligence to improve processes.
Modify the organizational structure of the business.

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* 17. In the last three years, what is the percentage of purchases made from suppliers over the Internet in this business?

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* 18. In the last three years, what percentage of total sales were made over the Internet?

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* 19. To what extent has your business employed telecommuting during the past three years?

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* 20. To what extent does this business use social media to communicate with its customers?

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* 21. In the last three years, what percentage of staff recruitment has been carried out through the Internet?

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* 22. How important was digital transformation to your business sales in 2022?

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* 23. What is your level of agreement or disagreement with the following items? DT: digital transformation.

  Not Applicable Strongly disagree Slightly disagree Neither agree nor disagree Slightly agree Strongly agree
Achieving DT is an important competitive factor.
Human Resources are a conditioning factor in achieving DT.
Cost/investment is a conditioning factor in achieving DT.
DT is a priority for the business.
DT means changing the way te organization works.
The top management levels (management and leadership) are determining factors in achieving DT.
DT is achieved by capturing and building customer loyalty through a digital strategy.
DT is achieved through a business strategy and methodologies oriented to promote digital innovation.
DT is achieved by coordinating and working as a team in digital environments.

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* 24. In the last three years, what percentage of sales has been allocated to the implementation of technology, automation and digitization?

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* 25. Based on the previous question, please provide a brief example of the most relevant technological process that you have achieved with the investment in digitization. In case you have selected the option (0%), please give an explanation.

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* 26. Currently, the acceleration of digitization has mostly affected: (you can choose more than two options)

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* 27. Based on the above question. What percentage of your total sales did you allocate to digitizing the following activities? (you can choose more than two options)

  0% 1% to 5% 6% to 10% 11% to 20% 21% to 30% 31% to more
Business Model
Work processes
Customer relationship
Products / services
Relationship with suppliers and/or distributors
Labor relations

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* 28. To what extent did the providers contribute to developing digital financial services during digitization?

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* 29. To what extent do you believe that using technologies has improved the efficiency and effectiveness of your company's processes?

  Not important Very unimportant Slightly important Moderately important Important Very important
Cloud computing
Artificial Intelligence
Big data
Internet of Things
Automation
Cybersecurity
Robotics

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* 30. Fintech: Described as the incorporation of technology into financial services, which can result in the creation of new business approaches, applications, processes, or products that have a significant impact on the delivery of financial services. Based on this definition, how have used “Fintech” financial technology tools impacted the formalization process of your business?

  Not important Slightly important Somewhat important Moderately important Very important Essential
Crowdfunding
E-invoicing and online accounting
Financial and credit data analysis
Collection and debt recovery management
E-payment solutions and digital wallets

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* 31. How did digitization influence your business's formalization process in the following methods?

  Null Very low Low Medium High Very high
Operations (Production/Service)
Strategic Decision- Making
Commercial
Human Resources
Logistics
Marketing
Finance

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* 32. Based on the previous question, please provide a brief explanation of the most important technological or digital process that has influenced your formalization process. In case you have selected the null option for all cases please give an explanation.

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* 33. Has your business received government support as part of business consolidation and formalization?

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* 34. To what extent does the absence or failure of formal institutions (infrastructure, legal and economic) result in difficulty for the business to carry out efficient and effective market transactions?

  Null Very low Low Medium High Very high
Infrastructure
Legal
Economic

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* 35. To what extent does the influence of customs, norms, values, beliefs, and lifestyles prevent the company from conducting efficient and effective market transactions?

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* 36. To what extent do you consider that the participation of informal investors was necessary or important in formalizing and consolidating the business?

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* 37. In the last three years, how much time per week (average approx.) has senior management spent dealing with the bureaucracy and paperwork associated with government requirements?

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* 38. How difficult does the company find it to comply with the administrative requirements to participate in a public bidding process?

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* 39. How beneficial was the e-payment process for the company in the last three years?

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* 40. In the last three years, what modality did your business use for the following processes with the government?

  Presential modality Blended modality Online modality
Tax payments
Participation in public bids
Administrative procedures

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* 41. To what extent does government bidding through a digital platform benefit the business?

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* 42. Indicate which of the following elements helped to achieve your formalization process

  Not used Little used Moderately used Fairly used Heavily used Widely used
Facilitating registration and compliance (through simplified laws and procedures)
Making formalization more feasible (by improving the productivity of business)
Making operating informally less attractive (especially through strengthened enforcement and compliance measures)

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* 43. How important do you think it was for the business to participate and win a public investment fund for innovation in the last three years?

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* 44. Taking into account the last three years, how effective do you find the government’s measures to promote business development as part of business consolidation?

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* 45. What suggestions would you give to the government to promote formalization?

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* 46. To what extent were the following types of financing important for the formalization of your business?

  Null Very low Low Medium High Very high
Own resources
State institutional funds
Non-governmental organizations
Angel investors
Private financial institutions